AMALAN PENGUPAYAAN DAN AUTONOMI GURU DALAM PEMBELAJARAN DAN PEMUDAHCARAAN ABAD KE 21
This study aims to identify the level of practice and the influence of empowerment on the teacher autonomy in the 21st century teaching and learning (TL) in daily secondary school. The data for this study was gained from a sample of 278 teachers from 13 national daily secondary schools in one of the states in Northern Penisullar Malaysia using simple random sampling techniques. A set of questionnaire comprising three parts has been used to collect data. A modified Participant Empowerment Scale (SPES) questionnaire was used to measure teacher empowerment in TL. Whereas, the Teacher Autonomy Scale (TAS) questionnaire was used to measure teacher autonomy in TL. The findings of this study shows that from the standing points of the teachers, the practice of empowerment and teacher autonomy in TL are at a moderate level. This study also shows that there is a significant influence between decision-making and personal competency dimension of teacher empowerment on the teacher autonomy in general and in the curriculum aspects. As a conclusion, it is hoped that this study can be used by the involved parties as a reference in planning programs to increase the level of empowerment, and autonomy of teachers in implimenting the 21st century TL successfully and further able to bring improvement in school achievement.